"... and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free." John 8:32, NRSV
"To abandon facts if to abandon freedom. If nothing is true, then no one can criticize power, because there is no basis upon which to do so. If nothing is true, then all is spectacle. The biggest wallet pays for the most blinding lights." Timothy Snyder in On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons From The Twentieth Century. (To keep track of the shocking number of lies uttered daily by President Trump, stay tuned to The Washington Post.)
The Bible bears good news for us and for our time. It is not "fake news". While much of it is not factual, even its mythical stories deliver enduring truths. How does the Bible cast light on the crisis facing our nation today?
This study of the Bible seeks inspiration in it for the defense of American democracy. Our approach to the biblical texts will model the resistance required to stop our nation's current slide toward totalitarianism. Just as we must interpret our present crisis without dogmatic preconceptions, we'll read the Bible without a doctrinal filter. We'll read it meditatively: letting it lift us above fear and frustration and direct us into deliberative action. We'll read the signs of our present times in historical context, and read the Bible in the same way. We'll be listening for echoes from the Bible resonating from the US Constitution.
The people of Israel clamored for a king in a time when the country was under threat of invasion. The prophet Samuel's eloquent and prescient warning to them against the dangers of tyranny (I Samuel 8:4-20) rings as true today as it did then. In the mythical story in Mark 5:1-3 of the "legion" of demons that Jesus drove out of a man and into a herd of pigs, which were being raised to feed the Roman legion occupying Israel, we find another example of the deep disdain for oligarchy that is fixed in the DNA of the Judeo-Christian tradition. The Bible was an inspiration to the founders of this nation to embed checks and balances against tyranny into the US Constitution, and today the Bible inspires us to preserve them.
"If the main pillar of the system is living a lie, then it is not surprising that the fundamental threat to it is living in truth." So wrote the avant-garde playwright and anti-communist activist Vaclav Havel, who went on to become the first president of the Czech Republic after the communist system there was overthrown. In America, Christianity has become a tool of a dominant political system built on lies. One need look no further than at Attorney General Jeff Sessions' abuse of Romans chapter 13 to persuade Americans that the Bible says it is right to separate refugee children from their parents at the US/Mexico border. We must resist this perversion with a search for truth about the Bible itself, revealing how its stories can give us strength and hope.
Should it be surprising that many of the folks who claim to take the Bible literally also claim that climate change is a Chinese hoax, Obama was born in Kenya, and the poor will get richer if the rich get richer? "Alternative facts" in religion are directly related to belief in "alternative facts" in politics. There is a direct causal link between the Reagan era in the 1980's, when fundamentalist Christianity allied with the Republican Party, and the current President's denial not just of facts, but of the existence of factuality itself. Republicans manipulated fundamentalist/evangelical Christians into supporting their anti-tax, anti-regulation, anti-immigrant, anti-government agenda by pandering to the worst instincts of nativism, racism, and paranoia - the very opposites of the message and example of Jesus. Now our country is reaping the resulting bitter harvest of hatred and mendacity.
Christianity is part of our country's problem.
But it is also part of the solution. Faithfully following Jesus' law of love inspires us to stand up for full LGBTQ equality, immigrant rights, women's rights, environmental protection, and robust social insurance and universal health coverage for all - especially for the most vulnerable of our fellow citizens. Studying the historical roots of the Bible, without supernaturalistic presumptions, primes us to promote scientific and social progress and fact-based, compassionate public policies.
On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century by Timothy Snyder, a Yale history professor who incisively diagnoses the present danger posed by Trump and the Republicans to the survival of democracy in this country, and offers prescriptions for action. This short book will set the stage for all that is discussed in this Bible study.
Deeper Love: Faithful Rhetoric for Progressive Social Change by Progressive Christians Uniting, Jim Burklo, editor. A short, practical guide to the use of religious and spiritual language in progressive social activism. It gives a concise historical context for the current crisis in our democracy, and Christianity's role in it.
1) The Bible is a collection of human writings about the quest of the ancient Jewish and early Christian people to work out their relationships with God and with each other. We read the Bible to help us do the same. Anything in the Bible that looks miraculous or contrary to the normal functions of the natural world should not be presumed to be factual, but rather mythological. In ancient times, the distinction that now exists between factual and fictional narratives did not exist in the same way as it does now. The Bible does not ask us to "believe" it as if it were a collection of facts or a set of legal prescriptions that necessarily should be affirmed or followed outside their original cultural contexts. Rather, its writings challenge our spiritual and moral imaginations, inviting us to use them as rich language for expressing our journeys of faith. Ancient biblical myths can have great power in positively transforming our lives today. In this study, we will study the Bible from the perspective of non-doctrinal, academic scholarship, richly illuminating the spiritual and cultural milieus out of which the texts were formed. I recommend the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. It is perhaps the most accurate English translation from the most reliable Hebrew and Greek ancient texts.
2) Christianity is old, huge, and messy! There is no one way to be sincerely and truly Christian. The church is not and never was a single, monolithic organization or fixed set of beliefs and practices. So Christians today have very many choices about how to be Christian. This is both liberating and confusing. Here we embrace that freedom and that uncertainty, prayerfully opening our hearts to what can be learned and practiced of value in all of the branches of our rich and varied faith tradition.
3) In Christianity, there is no one final answer to the question: Who or what is God? In different parts of the Bible, God is portrayed contrastingly as one local divinity among others, the head of a council of divine beings, a universal supernatural power, the essence of existence, a jealous and vengeful father, a human being named Jesus of Nazareth, and Love itself. Within Christianity, we have choices about how to understand the nature of God.
4) Likewise, there is no one final answer to the question: Who was Jesus? Divine? Human? Both? A rabbi, a supernatural being, a radical revolutionary? Almost nothing is known about him other than what is found in the gospel stories of the New Testament, which are largely mythological accounts reflecting multiple early Christian interpretations about who he was, what he said, and what he did. By the time the letters in the New Testament were written, already there were differing schools of thought about the nature and identity of Jesus. The diversity of views has kept growing since. Christians have very many choices about how to understand and relate to Jesus, the central character of the faith. In this study, we will explore several understandings of the nature and the message of Jesus.
5) Other religions may be as good for other people as Christianity is for us. Religious pluralism reflects the spiritual humility that is intrinsic to Christian faith. How could the religion of a humble man, Jesus of Nazareth, get so full of itself that it could claim to be the only true faith for humankind? This study of the Bible aims to stay grounded in spiritual and religious humility. Whatever we say, whatever we discover, there will still be room for further learning and revelation.
6) What matters most in Christianity is not how we believe, but how we love. Christianity is the exercise of radical compassion, even toward our enemies. To help us grow in love, we practice the Christian spiritual disciplines of worship, social and political engagement, service, contemplative or meditative prayer, study, music, and artistic expression.
7) Christian love impels us to take care of our fellow people and to take care of our planet. That means working to change not only ourselves, but also our social and political systems, in order to reflect Jesus' radical compassion. This includes active resistance to forces that demean, degrade, and damage our fellow citizens and our world. This will be the primary focus of our study.
Note to study leaders: All 1.5 hr sessions will begin with a "check-in" time of fellowship, a contemplative, mindful, prayerful reading of the texts from the Bible, a brief talk by the leader about the textual, historical, and cultural issues relating to the passages, and an open conversation among participants about how the passages relate to our lives and our callings as activist citizens. (I urge that study leaders strive to create an atmosphere of calm, meditative reflection in their groups. This is a time when many citizens are feeling a lot of stress about the country's political situation. This study is intended to help participants channel this energy positively, and ground their souls in a wider, deeper context.) We'll be using the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Bible passages and assigned readings should be read by participants before each session. Ideally, participants should read all of "On Tyranny" by the second session, in order to optimize discussion of its points throughout the study. The book is short! But if that is not possible, I suggest they read at least two chapters of it per session. I suggest that study leaders read all the assignments and watch the videos ahead of time. For background on the scripture passages, I recommend the New Oxford Annotated Bible (NRSV), the Five Gospels by the Jesus Seminar, and God and Empire: Jesus Against Rome, Then and Now by John Dominic Crossan.
1) Introduction to the Bible: Watch and discuss this video by "Jesus Seminar" New Testament scholar John Dominic Crossan: Jesus and Empire -- to understand the tyrannical context in which Christianity emerged. (You can break up the viewing of this video over a few sessions.)
Readings to prepare: "How to Read the Bible" by Jim Burklo, Introduction to "Deeper Love", and Prologue and ch's 1 and 2 in "On Tyranny".
2) Biblical Anthropologies: . How do different passages in the Bible reflect different understandings of the nature of human beings? How did the framers of the U.S. Constitution understand human nature? How do these "anthropologies" relate to the current political crisis? Readings to prepare: Genesis 11, Romans 3: 23, Hebrews 2: 7; The US Constitution and "Progressive Taxation" by Jim Burklo, and ch 3, 4 in "On Tyranny".
3) The Danger of Tyranny: How does the speech of Samuel relate to the current threat to American democracy? Activity: re-write Samuel's warning about kings in I Samuel 8:4-20 as if he might address it to America today. Discussion: what is the present significance of William Penn's early 18th century statement: "Men must be ruled by God or they will be ruled by tyrants." Readings to prepare: I Samuel 8-12; ch 5, 6 in "On Tyranny".
4) The Magnificat: What were the politics of Mary, the mother of Jesus? How does her story of exile into Egypt with Joseph and Jesus relate to the racist and xenophobic anti-immigrant policies of the current government in Washington? What does it mean to "lift up the lowly" today? Art activity: make images of Mary that reflect your interpretation of her Magnficat in our current context. Readings to prepare: 1 Samuel 2: 1-10, Luke 1: 46-55; ch 7, 8 in "On Tyranny", "God in the Belly" by Jim Burklo. (See appendix at the end of this study for a list of scriptures that reference immigrants and "strangers".)
5) The Sermon on the Mount: What can we infer about the politics of Jesus from his Sermon on the Mount? How do we apply his teaching to the public issues of our time? Today, who are the "false prophets" in our public life? How did he frame his message in his "own way of speaking" - how did he go beyond the religious authority of his time, and how does this compare/contrast with the kind of authority projected by political leaders today? View all or part of this video of a sermon by Rev William Barber, leader of the new Poor People's Campaign. Readings to prepare: Matthew 5-7; ch 9, 10 in "On Tyranny".
6) The Prophetic Tradition: What does it mean to engage in prophecy today? How did the prophets speak truth to power, and how can we do the same today, effectively? Who are the prophets of our time? How does the role of the press today compare to the roles of biblical prophets in their time? And how does prophecy manifest today in popular culture (music, film, theater, etc)? Activity: write a rap and perform it, based on discussion. Readings to prepare: Isaiah 2: 2-4, 11: 1-3a, ch's 6-9; 40: 1-11, ch's 27-32; 61: 1-2; 65; ch 11, 12 in "On Tyranny"; Fat Tuesday Word Jazz by Jim Burklo.
7) Love in Action: What does it mean to love, in the context of social, political, and economic life? How do we practice "macro" love directed at millions of people we don't know personally, and never will? What can we learn about love through social activism? What does it mean for us to "practice corporeal politics"? Watch this video: On Love and Nonviolence - Martin Luther King. Readings to prepare: John 13: 34-35, James 1: 19-25; ch 13, 14 in "On Tyranny".
8) Charity and Change: What is the difference between charity and social change? What is the right balance between activism for public policy change, and our commitments to good causes in the private sector? Activity: follow this 1-to-3 session mini-course on faith and health care: Samaritan Care. And/or viewing this PPT about Effective Altruism - Doing Good Better. Readings to prepare: Luke 10: 25-37 - The Parable of the Good Samaritan; ch 15, 16 in "On Tyranny", and "Invisible Hand of God" by Jim Burklo.
9) The Kingdom of Heaven and the Kingdoms of Humans: How do we make the kingdom of heaven real on earth - and in America - without establishing some kind of theocracy? What is the place of obedience, civil disobedience, and civil initiative in response to unjust laws? How does Romans 13: 1-7 square with following Jesus' law of love and with Romans 13: 10: "Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law"? Readings to prepare: Luke 17: 20-21, Romans 13: 1-10; ch 17, 18 in "On Tyranny", "Real Religious Freedom" and "Feral Faith" by Jim Burklo.
10) Non-Violence in Speech and Action: How can we speak and act faithfully and humbly in the rough-and-tumble world of political rhetoric and action? How do we love our enemies in public life in America today? Where do we draw the line between confrontation and civility? Do we harass racist leaders out of Mexican restaurants, or invite them in to share enchiladas and conversation? Listen to this NPR show about The Act of Listening. Readings to prepare: Matthew 5: 43-48, Ephesians 4; 25-32, Philippians 2: 5-8; ch 19, 20 in "On Tyranny", and "A Rubric for a Rhetoric of Deeper Love" by Progressive Christians Uniting.
40 days of Scripture and Prayer about Immigration and The Stranger
(Adapted from the Evangelical Immigration Table and Colorado Christian University - compiled by Linda Seger.)
Day 1: Matthew 22:36-40 (The Great Commandment)
Leviticus 19:18 ; Luke 10:27; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8
Day 2: Exodus 12:47-49
Day 3: Exodus 22:20-23
Day 4: Exodus 23:9
Day 5: Leviticus 19:33 – 34
Day 6: Leviticus 23:22
Day 7: Leviticus 24:22
Day 8: Numbers 15:15 – 16
Day 9: Deuteronomy 1:16
Day10: Deuteronomy 10: 17-19
Deuteronomy 14: 27
Day 11: Deuteronomy 24:14
Day 12: Deuteronomy 24:17 – 18
Day 13: Deuteronomy 24:19
Day 14: Deuteronomy 26:12-13
Day 15: Deuteronomy 27:19
Day 16: Job 29:16
Day 17: Psalms 9-10: 9, 12, 12, 14, 17-18
Day 18: Psalms 107
Day 19: Psalms 72: 1, 4, 12-14
Day 20: Psalms 94:6-7
Day 21: Psalms 146:9
Day 22: Isaiah 10: 1-2
Day 23: Jeremiah 2: 34
Day 24: Jeremiah 7:5-7
Day 25: Jeremiah 22:3
Day 26: Ezekiel 22:6 – 7
Day 27: Ezekiel 22:29
Day 28: Amos 2: 6-7
Day 29: Zechariah 7:10
Day 30: Malachi 1:5
Day 31: Matthew 2:13 – 15
Day 32: Matthew 25:31-46
Day 33: Luke 4:18-19
Day 34: Luke 10: 25-30
Day 35: Acts 17:24-27
Day 36: Romans: 12:13.
Day 37: Ephesians 2: 17-18
Day 38: Hebrews 13:1-2
Day 39: Peter 2:11 – 12
Day 40: Revelations 7:9-17
RESISTANCE BIBLE STUDY - SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS - Good Shepherd UCC, Sahuarita, AZ (Leaders: Susan Hill, Ed Hunt)
In America, Christianity has become a tool of a dominant political system
built on lies. We must resist this perversion with a search for truth about
the Bible itself, revealing how its stories can give us strength and hope.
For each class, we plan to send you the readings for that week and some
thought-provoking questions about these readings that we will be discussing
in a group. Please bring this sheet with you. We may also attach
other readings of interest.
The Session 1 readings you already have, plus the first 2 chapters in “On
Tyranny”. We will start with introductions and a brief (very brief) description
of what interested you about this class, why you are here.
Any strong questions/concerns you have about “Initial Assumptions” or
“How to read the Bible”.
From Introduction to “Deeper Love”:
"Voting dramatizes and reinforces the conviction that your word and mine have no less weight than the voices of the rich and the famous. To cast a ballot is to make a statement of faith. The language of politics is so seldom the language of the heart. Love is drowned out by vituperative partisan ranting in mass media. Essential to the re-enchantment of our civilization and its political life and institutions is holy awe for the potential energy packed in the language we speak and hear and write and read. The open expression of respect for the transcendent is itself the foundation of social and political authority. And the transcendent need not be expressed in supernatural terms."
From “On Tyranny”:
"Anticipatory obedience means adapting instinctively to a new situation. People are surprisingly willing to harm and kill others in the service of
some new purpose if they are so instructed by a new authority. It is institutions that help us preserve decency."
A Progressive Christian Welcome
By Jim Burklo
We follow the way of Jesus.
He opens our hearts
to know that our true selves are one with God, who is Love.
Jesus saves us from fear, from selfishness,
He leads us to serve with compassion and act for justice.
He moves us to curiosity and creativity.
He brings us together in the community of the church,
where we grow in Divine love,
build with others a more heavenly world,
and worship God with humble joy.
We listen for Holy Spirit whispers;
we wait for her to stir our souls
in silent contemplation.
We treasure the living, progressing Christian tradition.
We creatively employ the sacred myths of the Bible
to express our spiritual experience
beyond the bounds of creeds or beliefs.
We interpret anew our ancient practices
of prayer and worship.
We embrace what is good in our religion, and in others,
And release what stands in the way of the law of Love.
We follow the way of Jesus
And invite you to walk with us.
he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.”
Biblical Anthropologies: Genesis 11, Romans 3: 23, Hebrews 2: 7. How do
different passages in the Bible reflect different understandings of the nature of
human beings? How did the framers of the U.S. Constitution understand human
nature? How do these "anthropologies" relate to the current political crisis?
were not omnipotent from the start."
So support the multi-party system and defend the
rules of democratic elections. Vote in local and state elections while you can.
Consider running for office.
“eternal vigilance is the price of liberty,”
Note: Vigilance and liberty
American democracy must be defended from Americans who would exploit its
freedoms to bring about its end.
liberty must be gathered each day or it is rotten.”
Russian oligarchy established after the 1990 elections continues to function, and
promotes a foreign policy designed to destroy democracy elsewhere.
Note: Russia and destruction of democracy. Putin and Trump are "friends" with the
...odd American idea that giving money to political campaigns is free speech means
that the very rich have far more speech, and so in effect far more voting power,
than other citizens. We believe that we have checks and balances, but have rarely
faced a situation like the present: when the less popular of the two parties controls
every lever of power at the federal level, as well as the majority of statehouses. The
party that exercises such control proposes few policies that are popular with the
society at large, and several that are generally unpopular—and thus must either
fear democracy or weaken it.
Note: One party rule is dangerous
We need paper ballots, because they cannot be tampered with remotely and can
always be recounted.
Note: Paper ballots
Take responsibility for the face of the world. The symbols of today enable the
reality of tomorrow. Notice the swastikas and the other signs of hate. Do not look
away, and do not get used to them. Remove them yourself and set an example for
others to do so.
Life is political, not because the world cares about how you feel, but because the
world reacts to what you do.
In The Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes talks about his views of human
nature and describes his vision of the ideal government which is best suited to his
views. Hobbes believed that human beings naturally desire the power to live well
and that they will never be satisfied with the power they have without acquiring
Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The phrase has meant different things to
different people. To Europeans it has suggested the core claim—or delusion—of
American exceptionalism. To cross-racial or gay couples bringing lawsuits in
court, it has meant, or included, the right to marry. And sadly, for many Americans,
Jefferson might just as well have left “property” in place. To them the pursuit of
happiness means no more than the pursuit of wealth and status as embodied in a
McMansion, a Lexus, and membership in a country club. Even more sadly,
Jefferson’s own “property” included about two hundred human beings whom he
did not permit to pursue their own happiness.
Any relation to our political crisis?
Exodus 3: 915
Are we called to charm or challenge the empire?
Do I see the oppression and do I know the oppressor?
Have I spent time with the oppressed?
Will I stand and speak for the oppressed?
OT periods-follow the crucible time-300 years of battles over religious leadership
Premonarchical-from beginning of Israel to rise of David-1000 BCE
Postmonarchical-From exile to recovery from exile that led to the formation of
Bible as real history versus Bible as claimed history
Not reporting actual history. We have a sustained memory filtered through many
Raymond Brown: “After all, in the scriptures, we are in our Father’s house where
the children are permitted to play.”
These things may not have happened like this, but the story is true.
“What you read and what you see is not what is happening” Trump.
Christian Standard Bible
You made him lower than the angels for a short time; you crowned him with glory and honor
Contemporary English Version
You made us lower than the angels for a while. Yet you have crowned us with glory and honor.
Good News Translation
You made them for a little while lower than the angels; you crowned them with glory and honor
"When our days become dreary with low-hovering clouds of despair, and when
our nights become darker than a thousand midnights, let us remember that there
is a creative force in this universe, working to pull down the gigantic mountains
of evil, a power that is able to make a way out of no way and transform dark
yesterdays into bright tomorrows. Let us realize the arc of the universe is long
but it bends toward justice." Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
1 Samuel 8 - 12
On Tyranny, chapters 5 & 6
Samuel is part of the historical books of ancient Israel. It was probably
composed in the 7th—6th centuries, and then it was continually added to,
updated and changed by scribes, using both oral and written materials. Samuel
is the story of the beginning of the monarchy in Israel. In this book the
monarchy is seen as a threat to the reign of God and finally becomes a ”moral,
political, and religious failure.” (NRSV commentary)
How does the speech of Samuel relate to the current threat to American
Rewrite Samuel’s warning about kings in 1 Samuel 8:4-20 as if he might address
it to America today.
How do you understand the opening statement by MLK Jr?
What is the present significance of William Penn’s early 18th century statement:
“Men must be ruled by God or they will be ruled by tyrants”?
If lawyers had followed the norms of no execution without trial, if doctors had
accepted the rule of no surgery without consent, if businessmen had endorsed
the prohibition of slavery, if bureaucrats had refused to handle paperwork
involving murder, than the Nazi regime would have been much harder pressed to
carry out the atrocities by which we remember it. On Tyranny, chapter 5
Can/how do we resist on an every day level?
“Tyranny seldom comes overnight; it comes after democracy has died by a
thousand cuts.” (Jim Burklo) What cuts do you see?
We should make them
Go back to where they came from
Share our food
Share our homes
Share our countries
Instead let us
Build a wall to keep them out
It is not okay to say
These are people just like us
A place should only belong to those who are born there
Do not be so stupid to think that
The world can be looked at another way
(Now read from the bottom up)
A tyrant, in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained
by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often described
as a cruel character, a tyrant defends their position by oppressive means, tending to
control almost everything in the state. The original Greek term, however, merely
meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no
pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, it
was clearly a negative word to Plato, a Greek philosopher, and on account of the
decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only
increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period.
tyrants (plural noun)
1. a cruel and oppressive ruler.
"the tyrant was deposed by popular demonstrations"
synonyms: dictator · despot · autocrat · absolute ruler · authoritarian · oppressor
• a person exercising power or control in a cruel, unreasonable, or
"her father was a tyrant and a bully"
synonyms: slave driver · martinet · hard taskmaster · scourge · bully
• (especially in ancient Greece) a ruler who seized power without legal
Definition of TYRANT
1 a : an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution
b : a usurper of sovereignty
2 a : a ruler who exercises absolute power oppressively or brutally
b : one resembling an oppressive ruler in the harsh use of authority or power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is
an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate
sovereignty. Often described as a cruel character, a tyrant defends their position by
oppressive means, tending to control almost everything in the state. The
original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without
reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and
early Classical periods. However, it was clearly a negative word to Plato, a Greek
philosopher, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its
negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period.
Plato and Aristotle define a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme
and cruel methods against both their own people and others. It is defined further
in the Encyclopédie as a usurper of sovereign power who makes his subjects the
victims of his passions and unjust desires, which he substitutes for laws. During
the seventh and sixth centuries BC, tyranny was often looked upon as an
intermediate stage between narrow oligarchy and more democratic forms of polity.
However, in the late fifth and fourth centuries BC, a new kind of tyrant, the
military dictator, arose, specifically in Sicily.
Tyranny includes a variety of oppressive types of government – by a tyrant
(autocracy), by a minority (oligarchy, tyranny of the minority) or by a majority
(democracy, tyranny of the majority). The definition is extended to other
oppressive leadership and to oppressive policies. For example, a teacher may find
the school administration, the textbook or standardized tests to be oppressive,
considering each to represent a tyranny.
Website: MINDFULCHRISTIANITY.ORG Weblog: MUSINGS Follow me on twitter: @jtburklo
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Associate Dean of Religious Life, University of Southern California